A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows . Wireless LAN standards use radio waves, others use infrared signals as a . Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. .. A Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually Missing: sieci | Must include: sieci. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Sieci LAN,MAN, WAN - protokoły komunikacyjne | Książka prezentuje szeroki zestaw popularnych protokołów. 27 Woźniak, J., Nowicki, K.: Sieci LAN, MAN i WAN - protokoły komunikacyjne. Wydawnictwo Postępu Telekomunikacji, Wyd. 2, Saad, E.M.
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Routers forwards packets from one to another following a route from the sender to the receiver. Store-and-Forward Hosts are typically connected or close to sieci lan man wan routers.
Problems with delays if using satellites. LAN and WAN were the original categories of area networks, while the others have gradually emerged over many years of technology evolution.
For historical reasons, the networking industry refers to nearly every type of design as some kind of area network. Common examples of area network types are: System Area Network - links high-performance computers with high-speed connections in a cluster configuration.
Image processing und Communications. The image processing section of this book provides an inside on mainly on theories and methodologies as sieci lan man wan as the emerging applications of image processing.
Free-space optical communication uses visible or invisible light for communications. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.
Exotic technologies[ edit ] There have been various attempts at transporting data sieci lan man wan exotic media: It was implemented in real life in Node networking Apart from any physical transmission media there may be, networks comprise additional basic system building blocks, such as network interface controllers NICsrepeatershubsbridgesswitchesroutersmodemsand firewalls.
Any particular piece of equipment will frequently contain multiple building blocks and perform multiple functions. Network interfaces[ edit ] An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A network interface controller NIC is computer hardware that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the sieci lan man wan to process sieci lan man wan network information. For example, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry.
In Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control MAC address—usually stored in the controller's permanent memory. The size of an Ethernet MAC address is six octets. The three most significant octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers. These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce.
Repeaters and hubs[ edit ] A repeater is an electronic device that receives a network signalcleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it.
Integrated Solutions :: LAN + WAN EN
The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most sieci lan man wan pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than meters.
With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart. A repeater with multiple ports is known as an Ethernet hub. Repeaters work on sieci lan man wan physical layer of the OSI model.
Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal.
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This can cause sieci lan man wan propagation delay that affects network performance and may affect proper function. As a result, many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row, e. Hubs and repeaters in LANs have been mostly obsoleted by modern switches.
Bridges[ edit ] A network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer layer 2 of the OSI model to form a single network.
This breaks the network's collision domain but maintains a unified broadcast domain.