Congreso de Angostura : An address of Bolivar at the Congress of Angostura (February 15, ) Reprint ordered by the government of the United States. Discurso de Bolívar en el Congreso de Angostura (15 de febrero de ) (Spanish Edition) [Simón Bolívar] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying. Discurso de Angostura: speech of General Bolivar to the Congress of Venezuela ; discours prononcé par le libérateur à Angostura le 15 février , pour.


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However, he implores his audience of 26 representatives to take into account social realities of the former Viceroyalty when writing a new constitution. We are not Europeans; we are not Indians; we are but a mixed species of aborigines and Spaniards.

Document #2: “Address at the Congress of Angostura,” Simón Bolívar | Modern Latin America

Americans by birth and Europeans by law, we find ourselves engaged in a dual conflict: Thus our position is most extraordinary and complicated. But there is more. As our role has always been strictly passive and political existence nil, we find that our quest for liberty is now even more difficult of accomplishment; discurso de angostura 1819 we, having been placed in a state lower than slavery, had been robbed not only of our freedom but also of the right to exercise an active domestic tyranny.

We have been ruled more by deceit than by force, and we discurso de angostura 1819 been degraded more by vice than by superstition. Slavery is the daughter of darkness: Ambition and intrigue abuses the credulity and experience of men lacking all political, economic, and civic knowledge; they adopt pure illusion as reality; they take license for liberty, treachery for patriotism, and vengeance for justice.

  • Bolívar’s "Discurso de Angostura" and the constitution of the people

If a people, perverted by their training, succeed in achieving their liberty, they will soon discurso de angostura 1819 it, for it would be of no avail to endeavor to explain to them that happiness consists in the practice of virtue; that the rule of law is more powerful than the rule of tyrants, because, as the laws are more inflexible, every one should submit to their beneficent austerity; that proper morals, and not force, are the bases of law; and that to practice justice is to practice liberty.

Although those people [North Americans], so lacking in many respects, are unique in the history of mankind, it is discurso de angostura 1819 marvel, I repeat, that so weak and complicated a government as the federal system has managed to govern them in the difficult and trying circumstances of their past.

Discurso en el Congreso de Angostura / Simón Bolívar

But, regardless discurso de angostura 1819 the effectiveness of this form of government with respect to North America, I must say that it has never for a moment entered my mind to compare the position and character of two states as dissimilar as the English-American and the Spanish-American.

Would it not be most difficult to apply to Spain the English system of political, civil, and religious liberty: Hence, it would be even more difficult to adapt to Venezuela the laws of North America.

Basically, the document explained how Colombia was going to be as an independent nation, in relation to the reasons that motivated the political union of Venezuela and New Granada. Then, the Fundamental Law of the Republic of Colombia is as follows: Fromthe Republic of Colombia is created from the fusion of Venezuela and Discurso de angostura 1819 Granada, both nations with republican system.


The captain-generalship of Venezuela and the viceroyalty of New Granada join together their territories, which comprise "an extent of a hundred and fifteen thousand square leagues". The national debt of Colombia consolidates "in solidum" the debts of both Venezuela and New Granada debts.

Congress of Angostura - Wikipedia

The executive power is in the hands of the president and the vice-president, "both to be provisionally appointed by the present congress". Venezuela, Quito and Cundinamarca are the three great departments of the Gran Colombia; the name of the last discurso de angostura 1819 substitutes the old New Granada.

The departments have superior administrations and chiefs. Its "place and situation" is to be determined by the congress. A free obligation can be realized only through the coincidence between the particular wills of the individuals and the general will of the people, and every individual who wants the general will is obeying only to himself.

However, Rousseau maintains a distinction between the will of discurso de angostura 1819, that is the sum of individual wills, and the general will willed by the people as a unitary subject, since not every man is able to recognize his real good.

Venezuela. Congreso de Angostura | The Online Books Page

In order to be moral, man should silence his passions and transcend its immanent nature [Riley]. The liberation of slaves, therefore, is not only necessary in order to empower the army, but also as a symbolic turn which demonstrates to every individual that the possibility of freeing himself exists.

This means that the telos of the Republic exists for the first time in the present, discurso de angostura 1819 by the armed citizens who chose discurso de angostura 1819 fight against the adverse fortune, thus practicing their republican virtue.

Citizenship, therefore, is not regarded as something which depends on being born on Republican soil, but on the choice of liberty.

There he moved from the problem of the civil war and the lack of political unity that was completely discurso de angostura 1819 by the authors of the republican constitution.

The constitution, the formal organization of the State, should have been defined according to the human material which provides its content and substance.

A government, in other words, should be fit for the circumstances, times and men which constitute it.